Today, I would like to share with you about how to secure your GWT application by using package After reading this post, you’ll understand how to:

  • Secure HTML using SafeHtml
  • Secure URI using SafeUri
  • Secure CSS using SafeStyles

Why SafeHtml in GWT?

Considering your existing application has methods of the following style:

String text = "Hello world!";
HTML widget = new HTML(text);

It might result to XSS attacks if your text comes from a untrusted-source. You might say that this variable is a trusted plain-text string, but it’s not always true. When a variable comes from the method arguments, you have no guarantee about the safety of the input value. Here’s an example:

public void caller() {

public void setWidgetHtml(String html) {

So, a better idea is to replace String by SafeHtml. It ensures that the input values are always XSS-safe.

Secure HTML Using SafeHtml

Build SafeHtml Using SafeHtmlUtils

SafeHtml s = SafeHtmlUtils.fromString("<svg onload=alert(1)>");
SafeHtml t = SafeHtmlUtils.fromTrustedString("Hello world!");
SafeHtml c = SafeHtmlUtils.fromSafeConstant("<br>");

Use SafeHtmlUtils#fromString(String) if your input value is untrusted. You should escape it using this method so that it will be safe to be injected into any HTML template. For example, after the escaping, the JavaScript code <svg onload=alert(1)> will not be a popup anymore. Instead, it will be escaped and become a safe value &lt;svg onload=alert(1)&gt;. Any value coming from users, or coming from HTTP responses should be escaped.

Use SafeHtmlUtils#fromTrustedString(String) if your input can be trusted. Sometimes, it’s practical to trust some values, and do not escape against them. Trusted values are those which are litteral string created in your GWT code, in other words, constant values created by ourselves.

Use SafeHtmlUtils#fromSafeConstant(String) if your input should be safe and it’s a HTML constant. This method looks very similar to the previous one, but they’re not the same. From the Javadoc, we can see that all uses of this method must satisfy the following constrants:

  1. The argument expression must be fully determined at compile time.
  2. The value of the argument must end in “inner HTML” context and not contain incomplete HTML tags. I.e. the following is not a correct use of this method, because the <a> tag is incomplete:

    shb.appendHtmlConstant("<a href='").append(url);

The first constraint provides a sufficient condition that the arugment (and any HTML markup contained in it) orginates form a trusted source. The second constraint ensures the composability of SafeHtml values.

Build SafeHtml Using SafeHtmlBuilder

Building a SafeHtml using a builder is a good idea too. You can use it to append different values into your target SafeHtml, for example, a HTML constant, another inner-HTML, a character or any primitive types, string value(s) to escape etc.

SafeHtmlBuilder b = new SafeHtmlBuilder();
b.appendHtmlConstant("<br>");   // Must be a complet HTML tag
b.append(mySafeHtml);           // You Safe HTML
b.append(' ');                  // Primitives are XSS-safe
b.appendEscaped(oneLine);       // Single line escaping
b.appendEscapedLines(multiple); // Multiple lines escaping

SafeHtml result = b.toSafeHtml();

Build SafeHtml Using SafeHtmlTemplates

You can use the templating system to build a SafeHtml instance:


public class UsingTemplates {

  private static final MyTemplates templates
      = GWT.create(MyTemplates.class);

  public interface MyTemplates extends SafeHtmlTemplates {
    SafeHtml buildP(String text);

    SafeHtml buildDiv(SafeHtml html);

  public void injectString(String text) {
    SafeHtml p = templates.buildP(text);
    // ...

  public void injectSafeHtml(SafeHtml html) {
    SafeHtml div = templates.buildDiv(html);
    // ...

Secure URI Using SafeUri

SafeUri is an interface which encapsulates a URI that is guaranteed to be safe to use in a URL context, for example in a URL-typed attribute in an HTML document.

SafeUri uri = UriUtils.fromString("");

It’s also a good practice to use SafeUri to inject uri into a HTML template.

@Template("<img src=\"{0}\" alt=\"{1}\">");
SafeHtml img(SafeUri src, SafeHtml alt);

Append more values into an existing URL is considered as unsafe, so there’s no builder class as in HTML and CSS.

Secure CSS Using SafeStyles

Build SafeStyles Using SafeStyleBuilder

SafeStylesBuilder b = new SafeStylesBuilder();
b.appendTrustedString("filter: alpha(opacity=20);");
b.height(20, Style.Unit.PX);
b.width(20, Style.Unit.PX);
b.position(Style.Position.ABSOLUTE);, Style.Unit.PX);
b.left(0, Style.Unit.PX);

SafeStyles css = b.toSafeStyles();

Now, you can use such styles in a HTML template:

@Template("<div style=\"{0}\">...</div>")
SafeHtml div(SafeStyles s);


From this post, you’ve seen how to use the GWT prockage to secure your GWT application, so that it is XSS-safe. Please note that although the escaping prevents XSS in client’s browser, it should NOT be considered as a security measure for the server side: you still need to enforce the input validation on the server-side to prevent malicious input values. I hope you enjoy this post, see you next time!