Fields

Cookie stored in the browser (Chrome) contains 8 fields:

  • Name: The cookie’s name.
  • Value: The cookie’s value.
  • Domain: The cookie’s domain.
  • Path: The cookie’s path.
  • Expires / Maximum Age: The cookie’s expiration time, or maximum age. For session cookies, this field is always “Session”.
  • Size: The cookie’s size in bytes.
  • HTTP: If present, indicates that cookies should be used only over HTTP, and JavaScript modifications is not allowed.
  • Secure: If present, indicates that communication for this cookie must be over an encrypted transmission.

When reveiving an HTTP request, a server can send a Set-Cookie header with the response. The cookie is usually stored by the browser, and then the cookie is sent with requests made to the same server inside a Cookie HTTP header. An expiration date or duration can be specified, after which the cookie is no longer sent. Additionally, restrictions to a specific domain and path can be set, limiting where the cookie is sent.

The Set-Cookie HTTP response header sends cookies from the server to the user agent. A simple cookie is set like this:

Set-Cookie: <cookie-name>=<cookie-name>

The header from the server tells the client to store a cookie.

HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-type: text/html
Set-Cookie: k1=v1
Set-Cookie: k2=v2

Now, with every new request to the server, the browser will send back all previouly stored cookies to the server using Cookie header.

GET /my_page.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.org
Cookie: k1=v1; k2=v2

The cookie created above is a session cookie: it didn’t specify an Expires or Max-Age directive. However, web browsers may use session restoring, which makes most session cookies permanent, as if the browser was never closed.

Permanent cookies is different from session cookies. They expire at a specific date Expires or after a specific length of time Max-Age. Note that when an expiry date is set, the time and date set is relative to the client where the cookie is being set on, not the server.

Set-Cookie: id=123; Expires=Fri, 20 Oct 2017 09:00:00 GMT;

Domain-Match

According to [IETF RFC 2109][rfc2109], Hosts names can be specified either as an IP address or a FQHN string. Sometimes we compare one host name with another. Host A’s name domain-matches host B’s if

  • both host names are IP addresses and their host name strings match exactly; or
  • both host names are FQDN strings and their host name strings match exactly; or
  • A is a FQDN string and has the form NB, where N is a non-empty name string, B has the form .B’, and B’ is a FQDN string. (So, x.y.com domain-matches .y.com but not y.com.)

Note that domain-match is not a commutative operation: a.b.c.com domain-matches .c.com, but not the reverse.

Secure

A secure cookie is only sent to the server with a encrypted request over the HTTPs protocol. Even with Secure, sensitive information should never be stored in cookies, as they are inherently insecure and this flag cannot offer real protection.

HttpOnly

To prevent cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks, HttpOnly cookies are inaccessible to JavaScript’s Document.cookie API; they are only sent to the server. For example, cookies that persist server-side sessions don’t need to be available to JavaScript, and the HttpOnly flag should be set.

Set-Cookie: id=123; Expires=Fri, 20 Oct 2017 09:00:00 GMT; Secure; HttpOnly

Open the console of Chrome, then past the following command:

document.cookie

Or pretty print using

var cookies = document.cookie.split(';');
cookies.forEach(function(c) {
    console.log(c.trim());
});

Note that HttpOnly cookies are not available from JavaScript.

After reading a lot of stuff from the internet, now let’s create a cookie ourselves. Here, I’m using 3 software:

  • Server: Jekyll, a static blog generator running on localhost:4000
  • Proxy: ZAP proxy listening and intercepting the traffic on localhost:18080
  • Client: Firefox, in non-private mode, receiving traffic from :18080

I set a breakpoint to the proxy, so that I can add a Set-Cookie header to the HTTP response:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Set-Cookie: proxy=ZAP; Expires=Fri, 20 Oct 2017 09:00:00 GMT; HttpOnly

All the information can be seen from the browser cookie inspector:

proxy: "ZAP"
  CreationTime: "Thu, 19 Oct 2017 20:17:58 GMT"
  Domain: "localhost"
  Expires: "Fri, 20 Oct 2017 09:00:00 GMT"
  HostOnly: true
  HttpOnly: true
  LastAccessed: "Thu, 19 Oct 2017 20:17:58 GMT"
  Path: "/"
  Secure: false

However, it doesn’t not shown from the console using document.cookie because of its HttpOnly header:

document.cookie.indexOf('proxy')
-1

References