Overview

This post is mainly a review of what have been taught during the security training in day 3. It aims to share knowledge and make us aware of the importance of security. After reading this article, you will understand:

  • Insecure Direct References
  • Broken Access Control
  • Improper Input Validation
  • Software Best Practices

Reminder: the security tools used here are ZAP Proxy and Juice Shop – probably the most modern and sophisticated insecure web application.

Insecure Direct Object References

Insecure Direct Object Reference (called IDOR from here) occurs when a application exposes a reference to an internal implementation object. Using this way, it reveals the real identifier and format/pattern used of the element in the storage backend side. The most common example of it (although is not limited to this one) is a record identifier in a storage system (database, filesystem and so on). IDOR is referenced in element A4 of the OWASP Top 10 in the 2013 edition.

Preventing insecure direct object references requires selecting an approach for protecting each user accessible object (e.g., object number, filename):

  • Use per user or session indirect object references. This prevents attackers from directly targeting unauthorized resources. For example, instead of using the resource’s database key, a drop down list of six resources authorized for the current user could use the numbers 1 to 6 to indicate which value the user selected. The application has to map the per-user indirect reference back to the actual database key on the server. OWASP’s ESAPI includes both sequential and random access reference maps that developers can use to eliminate direct object references.
  • Check access. Each use of a direct object reference from an untrusted source must include an access control check to ensure the user is authorized for the requested object.

Access Control

Access Control / authorization is the process where requests to access a particular resource should be granted or denied. It should be noted that authorization is not equivalent to authentication - as these terms and their definitions are frequently confused. Authentication is providing and validating identity. Authorization includes the execution rules that determines what functionality and data the user (or Principal) may access, ensuring the proper allocation of access rights after authentication is successful.

Web applications need access controls to allow users (with varying privileges) to use the application. They also need administrators to manage the applications access control rules and the granting of permissions or entitlements to users and other entities. Various access control design methodologies are available. To choose the most appropriate one, a risk assessment needs to be performed to identify threats and vulnerabilities specific to your application, so that the proper access control methodology is appropriate for your application.

This section contains exercises related to access control / authorization in Juice Shop.

Basket Access Tier 1. View another user’s shopping basket. When visiting page « Your Basket », you can see that the API is http://localhost:3000/rest/basket/4. So, it means the API pattern is:

http://localhost:3000/rest/basket/${id}

By changing the basket id, you will be able to see other’s basket. For example, asking http://localhost:3000/rest/basket/3 returns:

{
  "status": "success",
  "data": {
    "id": 3,
    "coupon": null,
    "createdAt": "2019-01-24T20:22:03.098Z",
    "updatedAt": "2019-01-24T20:22:03.098Z",
    "UserId": 3,
    "Products": [
      {
        "id": 5,
        "name": "Lemon Juice (500ml)",
        "description": "Sour but full of vitamins.",
        "price": 2.99,
        "image": "lemon_juice.jpg",
        "createdAt": "2019-01-24T20:22:03.042Z",
        "updatedAt": "2019-01-24T20:22:03.042Z",
        "deletedAt": null,
        "BasketItem": {
          "id": 5,
          "quantity": 1,
          "createdAt": "2019-01-24T20:22:03.098Z",
          "updatedAt": "2019-01-24T20:22:03.098Z",
          "BasketId": 3,
          "ProductId": 5
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

Forged Feedback. Assume that you’re user 13, after sending your own feedback from url http://localhost:3000/#/contact, inspect and modify the POST request with another user id (such as user 13) and resend with the modified content as follows:

{
  "UserId": 13,
  "captchaId": 0,
  "captcha": "-1",
  "comment": "123",
  "rating": 4
}

Improper Input Validation

Input validation is performed to ensure only properly formed data is entering the workflow in an information system, preventing malformed data from persisting in the database and triggering malfunction of various downstream components. Input validation should happen as early as possible in the data flow, preferably as soon as the data is received from the external party.

Data from all potentially untrusted sources should be subject to input validation, including not only Internet-facing web clients but also backend feeds over extranets, from suppliers, partners, vendors or regulators, each of which may be compromised on their own and start sending malformed data.

This section contains exercises related to improper input validation in Juice Shop.

Payback Time. Place an order that makes you rich. Observe the basket item API (PUT http://localhost:3000/api/BasketItems/itemId), where quantity is sent. Then, replay the request with negative value:

{
  "quantity": -2
}
{
  "status": "success",
  "data": {
    "id": 8,
    "quantity": -2,
    "createdAt": "2019-01-24T20:48:15.132Z",
    "updatedAt": "2019-01-24T21:10:46.113Z",
    "BasketId": 4,
    "ProductId": 1
  }
}

Software Best Practices

  • Architecture: do you think about security?
  • Think about security in the entire development lifecycle: design, coding, test, ops.
  • A passing penetration test does not mean the application is secure, it only means the application is not easy to be hacked.
  • Defensive coding: training, code review, CI code analysis, etc.
  • OWASP Secure Coding Practices - Quick Reference Guide

Conclusion

In this article, we saw briefly the following topics: insecure direct references, broken access control, improper input validation and software best practices. Hope you enjoy this article, see you the next time!